Report consists from internal anaysis and an elaboration of data obtained from ENTSO-E

Country-by-country tour

Overview of electricity sectors of South East Europe

South

East

Europe

 AL

BA

BG

HR

GR

HU

KS

MK

MN

RO

RS

SI

 * presented report includes Greece

 * Due to lack of data provided by ENTSO-E, Kosovo results are omitted from the report

Highlighted News

2

ALBANIA

 

Tirana

 Korçë cathedral

Generation mix 2014-2017,MW

Electricity balance in 2017

Population

Nominal GDP

El. demand

TSO

2,873,457

$13.039 billion

7.12 TWh

KESH

Albania has an electricity sector that completely relies on hydro power and imports. It does not emit CO2, but is highly dependent on importing electricity. Imports satisfied over 40% of the country’s overall demand.

 

The country seems to slowly move in the direction of sustainable energy. In this light, Albanian state-owned utility recently announced plans to develop a 12.9 MW floating solar unit. However, no considerable RES were implemented so far.

Three of the country’s key issues are:

1.

2.

3.

Lack of a stable and concise regulatory framework in line with European standards;

 

Lack of a coherent energy development strategy that would define straight-cut goals and a detailed plan of action;

 

Complicated bureaucratic procedures and prolonged permitting processes.

Until these issues are not resolved, it seems that the energy sector will hardy be able to move forward. Any larger investment would require some form of government support or a public-private partnership.

 

Country News

BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

 

Stari Most Mostar

 Sarajevo

Population

Nominal GDP

El. demand

TSO

3,507,017

$18.169 billion

12.88 TWh

NOS BiH

Generation mix 2014-2017,MW

Electricity generation in 2017

Bosnia and Herzegovina heavily relies on its lignite fired power plant fleet. In fact, in September 2016, a new 300 MW lignite power plant of Stanari started commercial operation underlining the country’s commitment to its thermal power portfolio

Despite emitting a great deal of CO2, the country:

1.

2.

3.

Has no long-term strategy regarding the reduction of carbon emissions;

 

Is not a part of the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS), nor does it plan to become a member of the scheme;

 

Does not have plans that entail the adoption of EU acquis communautaire in a short-term period.

Despite ambitious plans regarding renewables, the country did not have a significant operational renewable energy source in 2017. However, a number of wind farm projects are being developed by private entities, most of them trying to complete the permitting processes. These projects have the potential to add several hundred megawatts of renewable energy capacity.

 

It would be of the utmost importance for the country to carefully examine all the examples of RES implementation in the nearby surroundings in order to avoid the mistakes and issues some of the countries faced. It is inevitable that subsidising renewables will present an additional expense for the energy sector. Raised costs should be reflected on electricity prices for end consumers. However, raising household electricity prices proved to be a very delicate problem for a number of countries in the region as it directly affected the living standard of citizens. On the other hand, having electricity prices that do not reflect on the production costs, can only result in a serious distortion and lead to considerable financial losses that would undermine the stability of the entire energy sector. Until then, the country will continue to use its lignite units (70% of demand) and hydro power plants (30% of demand) to produce electricity.

 

Country News

BULGARIA

 

 Sofia, Aleksandr Nevskij Cathedral

Generation mix 2014-2017,MW

Electricity generation in 2017

Population

Nominal GDP

El. demand

TSO

7,075,991

€56.83 billion

35.33 TWh

ESO

Bulgaria’s electricity production relies on the Belene (2000 MW) and Kozloduy (1920 MW) nuclear power plants and on its thermal power plant portfolio. Together, they cover over 80% of demand. During 2017, nuclear power plants produced 14.7 TWh, while thermal power plants had an output of 19.4 TWh of electricity.

 

For a period, the country’s renewable energy sector recorded significant growth. However, after having reached approximately 1800 MW of renewable energy capacity and after experiencing difficulties in covering its financial obligations, the country put renewables on a hold.

 

As reported by Bulgarian news outlets, the Government recently started contemplating the idea of a building new nuclear power plant on the existing Belene site. This would continue the abandoned Belene 2 project in which Russian based Atomstroyexport was picked to construct a two unit (1000 MW each) power plant. The country will now look to find a strategic partner to complete the project.

Country News

GREECE

 

Santorini

 Athens, Parthenon, Acropolis

Population

Nominal GDP

El. demand

TSO

10,760,421

€200.28 billion

52.00 TWh

ADMIE

Generation mix 2014-2017,MW

Electricity balance in 2017

Greece is the leader of the region when it comes to implementing renewable energy. It recently announced a continuation of their efforts and plans to add more renewable capacities in the near future, as well. The country already has most renewable capacities installed (4800 MW) and the highest share of renewable energy in the electricity balance (16%, as Romania). However, without having more hydro power capacities, Greece is far too reliant on its thermal power plant portfolio. Covering 61% of the country’s electricity demand, only Bosnia (70%) and Serbia (73%) have a higher share of thermal power plants in their electricity balances.

 

As far as the generation portfolio goes, Greece closed a number of thermal power plants and recorded the most significant reduction in installed capacities in the region. Overall, observing the 2014-2017 period, despite adding 900 MW of new thermal power plants, the country recorded a reduction in its thermal portfolio of 3500 MW and a reduction in the overall installed capacity of over 4300 MW. These reductions did little to aid the country’s electricity balance. During 2017, the country had to import 15% of its electricity needs.

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CROATIA

 

Zagreb

 Dubrovnik

Population

Nominal GDP

El. demand

TSO

4,125,700

€54.85 billion

17.15 TWh

HOPS

Generation mix 2014-2017,MW

Electricity balance in 2017

Croatia has a diversified generation portfolio, but is far too reliant on electricity imports to maintain a reliable and affordable supply. Even when taking into account that half of nuclear power plant Krško production belongs to Croatia, the country still had to import 27% of its electricity needs.

 

Hydro power is the dominant source of electricity (27%), but a considerable proportion of demand is satisfied by thermal power plants, as well (22%).

 

Croatia made considerable efforts in implementing renewable energy sources resulting in an end-year net installed capacity of just below 700 MW and a 7% share in the electricity balance. In addition, Croatia aims to further expand its renewable energy portfolio and will offer new incentive schemes for investments in renewables.

Country News

HUNGARY

 

Széchenyi Lánchíd

 Budapest

Population

Nominal GDP

El. demand

TSO

9,781,271

€139.13 billion

41.94 TWh

MVM

Generation mix 2014-2017,MW

Electricity balance in 2017

Hungary is the largest net importer of electricity in the region having covered 36% of electricity demand in 2017 by imports. The rest of electricity balance is covered by the 1887 MW Paks nuclear power plant and by the country’s thermal portfolio. Both hydro and renewable energy play a minor role in the energy mix.

 

Hungarian state owned utility MVM initiated several renewable energy projects, mostly directed in solar power. However, in order to facilitate a serious shift towards sustainable energy solutions, a different, more strategic approach will have to be taken.

 

As things currently stand, Hungary will focus on expanding its nuclear portfolio by adding another 2400 MW on the existing Paks site. The €12.5 billion Paks II project will be led by Russian based Rosatom with works aimed to start during 2019.

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MONTENEGRO

 

Boka kotorska

 Durmitor National Park

Population

Nominal GDP

El. demand

TSO

622,471

€4.77 billion

3.218 TWh

CGES

Generation mix 2014-2017,MW

Electricity balance in 2017

Montenegrin electricity sector is dominated by hydro power and the lignite based thermal power plant of Pljevlja. It is by far the smallest energy system of the region consuming just over 3.2 TWh per year. Montenegro is highly dependent on imports with a similar import rate as Hungary, which in 2017 amounted to a 35% share in demand.

 

Montenegro has plans for fostering renewable energy and offers subsidies for new renewable generation capacities. The country’s first renewable energy source is the 72 MW wind farm of Krnovo, which started commercial operation in 2017. Additionally, there are several wind farm projects currently being developed by independent players that have the potential to significantly change the landscape of the country’s generation mix.

 

Apart from renewables, the Montenegrin government has, for quite some time, been pursuing the project of expanding the Pljevlja thermal power plant. Czech based Škoda Praha was selected as the strategic partner in the €324.5 million project. However, Škoda encountered problems trying to close the financial construction of the unit and the Government was forced to cancel the deal.

Country News

MACEDONIA

 

Skopje, Alexander the Great

 Ohrid Lake

Population

Nominal GDP

El. demand

TSO

2,876,591

€33.42 billion

7.123 TWh

KESH

Generation mix 2014-2017,MW

Electricity balance in 2017

Albania has an electricity sector that completely relies on hydro power and imports. It does not emit CO2, but is highly dependent on importing electricity. Imports satisfied over 40% of the country’s overall demand.

 

The country seems to slowly move in the direction of sustainable energy. In this light, Albanian state-owned utility recently announced plans to develop a 12.9 MW floating solar unit. However, no considerable RES were implemented so far.

Three of the country’s key issues are:

1.

2.

3.

Lack of a stable and concise regulatory framework in line with European standards;

 

Lack of a coherent energy development strategy that would define straight-cut goals and a detailed plan of action;

 

Complicated bureaucratic procedures and prolonged permitting processes.

Until these issues are not resolved, it seems that the energy sector will hardy be able to move forward. Any larger investment would require some form of government support or a public-private partnership.

 

Country News

ROMANIA

 

Bucharest

Population

Nominal GDP

El. demand

TSO

2,876,591

€33.42 billion

7.123 TWh

KESH

Generation mix 2014-2017,MW

Electricity balance in 2017

Albania has an electricity sector that completely relies on hydro power and imports. It does not emit CO2, but is highly dependent on importing electricity. Imports satisfied over 40% of the country’s overall demand.

 

The country seems to slowly move in the direction of sustainable energy. In this light, Albanian state-owned utility recently announced plans to develop a 12.9 MW floating solar unit. However, no considerable RES were implemented so far.

Three of the country’s key issues are:

1.

2.

3.

Lack of a stable and concise regulatory framework in line with European standards;

 

Lack of a coherent energy development strategy that would define straight-cut goals and a detailed plan of action;

 

Complicated bureaucratic procedures and prolonged permitting processes.

Until these issues are not resolved, it seems that the energy sector will hardy be able to move forward. Any larger investment would require some form of government support or a public-private partnership.

 

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SERBIA